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Accounts and addresses#

Wake testing framework strictly distinguishes between accounts and addresses. However, in most cases, API functions accept both Account and Address types.


Address is a 20-byte value encoded as a hex string. It can be constructed from a hex string or an integer:

from wake.testing import Address


The hex string does not have to be EIP-55 compliant.

Addresses can be compared with each other:

from wake.testing import Address

assert Address(1) > Address(0)


Account is an Address bound to a specific Chain. It can be constructed from an Address, a hex string or an integer. Optionally, a chain can be specified, otherwise the default_chain global object is used:

from wake.testing import Account, Chain, default_chain

other_chain = Chain()

assert Account(0) == Account(0, default_chain)
assert Account(0) != Account(0, other_chain)

Address and Account instances cannot be compared with each other. Account instances belonging to different chains cannot be compared using the < and > operators.

Using accounts belonging to different chains

To save users from accidentally using accounts belonging to different chains, Wake testing framework does not accept Account instances belonging to different chains in most API functions. To overcome this limitation, it is possible to use the address property of an Account instance.

Importing accounts and addresses#

Account and Address instances can be imported from a private key:

from wake.testing import Account, Address

Account.from_key("0x" + "a" * 64)
Address.from_key("0x" + "a" * 64)

From a mnemonic:

from wake.testing import Account, Address

Account.from_mnemonic(" ".join(["test"] * 11 + ["junk"]))
Address.from_mnemonic(" ".join(["test"] * 11 + ["junk"]))

Or from an alias (see Managing accounts with private keys):

from wake.testing import Account, Address


It is also possible to create a new account with a random private key:

from wake.testing import Account

In all of the above cases, a private key is stored together with the account and can be used to sign transactions or messages.

Signing messages#

Account instances can be used to sign messages. This is only possible if the account has a known private key. The private key must be imported using one of the methods described in the previous section or must be owned by the client (the account must be present in chain.accounts).

Signing raw messages#

Using account.sign(message) it is possible to sign any message in the form of bytes:

from wake.testing import Account

account = Account.from_mnemonic(" ".join(["test"] * 11 + ["junk"]))
signature = account.sign(b"Hello, world!")

The message is signed according to the EIP-191 standard (version 0x45).

Signing structured messages#

Using account.sign_structured(message) it is possible to sign structured messages:

from wake.testing import *
from dataclasses import dataclass

class Transfer:
    sender: Address
    recipient: Address
    amount: uint256

account = Account.from_mnemonic(" ".join(["test"] * 11 + ["junk"]))
signature = account.sign_structured(

See EIP-712 for more information.

Signing message hash#

While it is not recommended to sign message hashes directly, it is sometimes necessary. To sign a message hash, use account.sign_hash(message_hash):

from wake.testing import *

account = Account.from_mnemonic(" ".join(["test"] * 11 + ["junk"]))
signature = account.sign_hash(keccak256(b"Hello, world!"))


Always sign a message hash only if you know the original message.

Assigning labels#

Account instances can be assigned labels. Labels override the default string representation of the account:

from wake.testing import Account

account = Account(0)
account.label = "ZERO"

Setting the label to None removes the label.

Account properties#

Account instances have the following properties:

Property Description
address Address of the account
balance balance of the account in Wei
chain Chain the account is bound to
code code of the account
label string label of the account
nonce nonce of the account
private_key private key of the account (if known)

Except for address, chain and private_key, all properties can be assigned to. nonce can only be incremented.

Low-level calls and transactions#

Each Account instance has call, transact, estimate and access_list methods that can be used to perform arbitrary requests (see Interacting with contracts):

from wake.testing import *

def test_accounts():
    alice = default_chain.accounts[0]
    bob = default_chain.accounts[1]

    alice.balance = 100
    bob.balance = 0

    bob.transact(value=10, from_=alice)
    assert alice.balance == 90
    assert bob.balance == 10

The previous example shows how to transfer Wei from one account to another.

Low-level contract creation

To deploy a contract from creation code, use chain.deploy:


Contract accounts#

Contract accounts are accounts that have non-empty code. Everything that applies to Account instances also applies to contract accounts. However, contract accounts have additional methods:

  • get_creation_code - returns the code used to deploy the contract, may require addresses of libraries needed by the contract,
  • deploy - deploys the contract, requires equivalent arguments as the constructor of the contract in Solidity,
  • other contract-specific methods generated in pytypes, including getters for public state variables.
from pytypes.contracts.Counter import Counter

assert len(Counter.get_creation_code()) > 0

Every method of a contract generated in pytypes has a selector property.

Constructing contracts from an address

The ability to construct a contract from an address (and an optional Chain instance) can be very useful when interacting with contracts through proxies:

from wake.testing import *
from pytypes.contracts.Counter import Counter
from pytypes.openzeppelin.contracts.proxy.ERC1967.ERC1967Proxy import ERC1967Proxy

def test_proxy():
    impl = Counter.deploy()
    proxy = ERC1967Proxy.deploy(impl, b"")

    # behave as if Counter was deployed at proxy.address
    counter = Counter(proxy.address)
    assert counter.count() == 1